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Additionally, a career and lifestyle fair has been held shortly after Christmas in recent years to show the professional and social opportunities in the area to those visiting family for the holidays.

Also, organizations of young professionals such as Valley Forward and Newva Connects have emerged. Roanoke's economy has areas of strength.

The city is the health care and retail hub of a large area, driving the expansion of Carilion Health System and Valley View Mall.

Advance Auto Parts is headquartered in Roanoke and has expanded through the acquisition of other chains to become one of the largest auto parts retailers in the country.

Norfolk Southern remains a major employer. FreightCar America hired several hundred persons to assemble rail cars in shops leased from Norfolk Southern and has closed a plant in Johnstown, Pennsylvania in part because of the lower costs for the Roanoke facility.

Recently though, the company laid off its Roanoke employees and said it plans to temporarily close the plant.

General Electric and TMEIC manufacture large drive systems for electrical generation stations and factories at their joint facility in Salem.

ITT manufactures night vision goggles at its plant in Roanoke County, and some of its employees have started other firms such as Optical Cable Corporation.

The proximity of automotive assembly plants in the South has attracted manufacturers including Dynax, Koyo, Metalsa and Yokohama , formerly Mohawk Tire.

Roanoke's location allows for delivery within one day to most markets in the southeast, northeast, mid-atlantic, and Ohio Valley , which has made it a distribution center for such companies as Orvis , Elizabeth Arden , and Hanover Direct.

According to Roanoke's Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [71] the top employers in the city are:. The city's daily newspaper, The Roanoke Times , has been published for years and edited for many years in the 20th century by famed editor John W.

The newspaper's current owner is Berkshire Hathaway. Weekday circulation averages a little over 90, with Sunday circulation around , In , it was designated the best-read daily newspaper in the country, according to the Scarborough Report.

Of newspapers in top US metropolitan areas, The Roanoke Times ranked first in the percentage of adults who read their daily newspaper.

It ranked first again in The Roanoke Times formerly published Blue Ridge Business Journal which served the business community in Roanoke and the surrounding region.

However, it ceased freestanding publication in [73] and was folded into the newspaper's Sunday Business Publication as The Ticker.

Valley Business Front is a monthly publication that targets the business community in the region.

Play by Play is a monthly publication dedicated to local and regional sports. The Roanoke Star-Sentinel is a weekly newspaper which covers the city of Roanoke.

The Roanoker is the area's bi-monthly lifestyle magazine and is published by Leisure Publishing, which also publishes the bi-monthly Blue Ridge Country magazine.

Roanoke and Lynchburg are grouped in the same television market, which currently ranks 67 in the United States with , households.

There are affiliates for all networks as well as independent stations. The following is a partial list of radio stations in the Roanoke-Lynchburg market, which has a population of , and is ranked in the US.

EventZone was created in by the merger of various existing event organizers. Roanoke's festivals and cultural events include the Chili Cook-Off, Festival in the Park, Local Colors Festival, Henry Street Festival, Big Lick Blues Festival, Strawberry Festival, and the large red, white, and blue illuminated Mill Mountain Star formerly illuminated in red following drunk driving fatalities in the Roanoke Valley; temporarily illuminated in white on April 22, , in remembrance of the Virginia Tech Massacre of April 16, on Mill Mountain, which is visible from many points in the city and surrounding valley.

Center in the Square was opened in downtown Roanoke on December 9, , near the city market as part of the city's downtown revitalization effort.

The Center, a converted warehouse, houses the History Museum of Western Virginia, which contains exhibits and artifacts related to the area's history and has a library of materials available to scholars and the public.

The art museum features 19th and 20th century American art, contemporary and modern art, decorative arts, and works on paper, and presents exhibitions of both regional and national significance.

The new space opened on November 8, The facility's design sparked debate in the community between those who feel it is a bold, refreshing addition to Roanoke and those who feel its unusual, irregular design featuring sharp angles contrasts too strongly with the existing buildings.

Some are also concerned about the facility's cost at a time when many Roanoke area artistic organizations face financial challenges. As a result, the museum was renamed The Taubman Museum of Art.

The museum also houses exhibits covering aviation, automobiles and buses. Roanoke's landmark former passenger rail station hosts the O.

Winston Link Museum dedicated to the late steam-era railroad photography of O. Winston Link since The Harrison Museum of African-American Culture is dedicated to the history and culture of Roanoke's African-American community and is currently located at a former school in the Gainsboro section of Roanoke.

Gainsboro, originally Gainesborough for founder Major Kemp Gaines, was originally a separate community that petitioned for township status in Berglund Center originally called the Roanoke Civic Center auditorium and newly renovated theatre, now known as the Roanoke Performing Arts Theatre, host concerts, touring Broadway theatre performances, the Miss Virginia pageant, and other events.

The city's first permanent artwork funded by the Percent for Art ordinance stands before the theater. Dedicated in , the foot 9.

The Shaftman Performance Hall, which opened in May and is located at the Jefferson Center, has become a prominent part of Roanoke's performing arts scene.

Shaftman Hall hosts a regular season of concerts and other performances from the fall through the spring as well as other entertainment events and lectures.

The Jefferson Center formerly served Roanoke as Jefferson High School and now also houses offices and display spaces for cultural organizations.

Located literally across the railroad tracks from the center of downtown Roanoke, Henry Street served as the commercial and cultural center of Roanoke's African American community prior to desegregation.

The renovated Dumas Center houses an auditorium with more than seats, the Downtown Music Lab: a recording studio and music education center for teens, the Dumas Drama Guild and the offices of Opera Roanoke.

The Roanoke Times wrote, "Between Staunton, Virginia and Abingdon, Virginia , and most especially in the Roanoke Valley, we have an unusual amount of live theater happening at the same time — with an unusual variety.

This essentially feels like the live-theater version of The Crooked Road, Virginia — which makes us wonder why someone doesn't try to market it that way.

From time to time, Roanoke has been billed as 'Virginia's Music City. Roanoke Children's Theatre is Roanoke's professional children's theatre.

It can be found within the new Taubman Museum of Art in downtown Roanoke. The theatre delivers four shows a year that are geared towards a family audience.

The theatre extends their programming in various arts outreach programs throughout the valley and surrounding areas.

Mill Mountain Theatre , a regional theatre , is located on the first floor of Center in the Square. As the name implies, the theatre was originally located on Mill Mountain from until when its original facility was destroyed by fire.

The theatre has both a main stage for mainstream performances and a smaller black box theatre called Waldron Stage which hosts both newer and more experimental plays along with other live events.

The Grandin Theatre in the Grandin Village of Southwest Roanoke regularly screens art house films, family features, and mainstream movies.

Virginia Western Theatre has performances in Whitman Auditorium at Virginia Western Community College , and has been performing original and well known theatrical productions since Roanoke has also been home to the Showtimers Community Theatre since Showtimers was formed in the summer of , by a group of people who wanted to present a summer season of amateur productions.

Over the years, Showtimers has produced over different shows, from standard, classic theatre pieces to the modern and avant-garde; from comedies designed solely to entertain to serious 'think pieces' on social issues; from small, intimate musicals to large shows made famous on Broadway.

Showtimers presents six shows per year. The Star City Playhouse is well known in Roanoke. Opera Roanoke was founded in as the Southwest Virginia Opera Society, Opera Roanoke has collaborated with the finest talent in our region, across the state and from cultural centers around the nation.

Under the direction of Victoria Bond, Craig Fields, Steven White and Scott Williamson, Opera Roanoke has maintained a reputation for presenting outstanding productions featuring some of the finest singers in the opera world.

Metropolitan Opera stars Eleanor Steber and Irene Dalis were among the company's earliest artistic advisors.

Although they did not perform, they mentored many young artists in the company's fledgling years as a community organization. It has special youth and student activities.

The Roanoke Symphony Chorus was established in under the direction of Dr. John Hugo. There was a previous organization called the Roanoke Symphony Orchestra, mentioned in the Roanoke Times in February "Something unique in theatrical circles of the nation is the Civic Theatre of Roanoke, formed from five organizations — Gilbert and Sullivan Light Opera company, the Academy Players, the Civic Chorus, the Community's Children's Theatre and the Roanoke Symphony Orchestra — for the purpose of the better production of entirely local plays and concerts.

The — Virginia Squires of the ABA were the only major league sports team to regularly play home games in Roanoke. Minor league baseball has been more successful in building and maintaining a fan base than have the Roanoke Valley's other minor league sports teams.

The team had previously been affiliated with the Houston Astros and Colorado Rockies and known as the Avalanche until becoming an affiliate of the Boston Red Sox, whose ownership group purchased the Avalanche in , for the season.

Minor league hockey has a history in the Roanoke Valley dating to the s. The team's attendance declined due to a lack of post-season success and management turmoil.

The Express folded after the —04 season. The team had a losing record and the midwestern-based league was unable to rekindle the interest of the local fanbase.

The team was formed to provide a travel partner for a UHL franchise in Richmond which also folded after the —06 season. The Dazzle's attendance was similar to other inaugural franchises in the league.

It was one of the last two teams to remain in its original city. Over the years, Roanoke has also had teams in soccer and men's and women's semi-professional football.

For a number of years, Roanoke, with Richmond and Norfolk, was one of the nominally neutral sites for the annual basketball game between the Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies.

During most of the s and s, the University of Virginia dominated the rivalry and as such tended to have significantly greater fan representation, despite Roanoke's closer proximity to Virginia Tech 's home in Blacksburg.

In the late s, the schools started holding these games in their own campus facilities. The Virginia Tech Hokies ice hockey team has used the Roanoke Civic Center as its regular season home venue, from to the present season.

From the s to the late s, Roanoke's Victory Stadium hosted an annual Thanksgiving Day game between Virginia Tech and the Virginia Military Institute and other high-profile college football games.

The Patriots won Group AAA state titles in men's basketball in and , football in , and men's tennis in George Lynch and Curtis Staples are among the athletes who have attended the school.

The Colonels have established strong programs in men's basketball and football with a Group AA state championship in men's basketball in and two state runner-up seasons in both sports over the last 15 years.

The Celtics won a VISAA football state championship in and have recently fielded strong men's basketball teams, often with foreign players, and have produced college players such as Virginia's J.

The Raiders have won three basketball championships, four football championships, and many other state awards in the past years.

The city has constructed separate on-campus football stadiums at the schools to replace Victory Stadium, which was demolished in summer Patriot Stadium was opened for the season and another stadium on the William Fleming campus opened for the season.

The field at Patriot Stadium was named after Merrill Gainer, who coached Patrick Henry to the state championship. The club has served to bring and sustain chess activities to the region, and holds regular events.

Roanoke and surrounding communities host the annual Commonwealth Games of Virginia, an Olympic-style amateur sports festival. Beginning in , the Blue Ridge Marathon on the Parkway is scheduled to be held in the city.

The older "Magic City" [81] is still used, most prominently by Roanoke's Ford dealership. Roanoke's status as the largest city in a mountainous area led to the nickname "Capital of the Blue Ridge".

Roanoke has seven sister cities : [84]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the metropolitan area, see Roanoke metropolitan area. For the unsuccessful colonization attempt, see Roanoke Colony.

Parts of this article those related to Demographics need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

October Independent city in Virginia, United States. Independent city. Downtown Roanoke from atop Mill Mountain. Timeline of Roanoke, Virginia. Pepper Capitol of the World [24] - Roanoke Tribune newspaper begins publication.

Bowers becomes mayor. Winston Link Museum opens. Sherman P. Lea becomes mayor. See also: List of mayors of Roanoke, Virginia.

Main article: List of neighborhoods in Roanoke, Virginia. Main article: Roanoke-Blacksburg Regional Airport. Main article: Roanoke station Virginia.

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Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, Archived from the original on July 23, Retrieved August 27, November 17, Archived from the original on October 4, May 24, Retrieved May 27, Census website".

There was one final expedition in led by Bartholomew Gilbert with the intention of finding Roanoke colonists.

Their intended destination was Chesapeake Bay, but bad weather forced them to land in an unspecified location near there.

The landing team, including Gilbert himself, was killed by a group of Native Americans for unknown reasons on July The remaining crew were forced to return to England empty-handed.

Following the establishment of the Jamestown settlement in , John Smith was captured by the Powhatan and met with both their leader Wahunsenacawh often referred to as "Chief Powhatan" and his brother Opchanacanough.

They described to him a place called "Ocanahonan", where men wore European-style clothing; and "Anone", which featured walled houses.

Later, after Smith returned to the colony, he made arrangements with Wowinchopunk, the king of the Paspahegh , to investigate "Panawicke", another place reportedly inhabited by men in European dress.

The colony produced a crude map of the region with labels for these villages. The map also featured a place called "Pakrakanick" with a note indicating, "Here remayneth 4 men clothed that came from Roonocok to Ocanahawan.

In the summer of , Smith sent a letter about this information, along with the map, back to England. Smith planned to explore Pakrakanick, but a dispute with the Paspahegh ended the mission before it could begin.

He also dispatched two search parties, possibly to look for the other villages reported to him, with instructions to find "the lost company of Sir Walter Rawley".

Neither group could find any sign of the Roanoke colonists living in the area. By May , word had reached England's Royal Council for Virginia that the colonists had been massacred by Wahunsenacawh.

Machumps, Wahunsenacawh's brother-in-law, is known to have provided information about Virginia, and he had recently arrived in England.

Based on this intelligence, as well as Smith's earlier report, the Council drafted orders for the Jamestown colony to relocate.

These orders recommended "Ohonahorn" or "Oconahoen" , near the mouth of the Chowan River , as a new base. Among the purported advantages of this location were proximity to "Riche Copper mines of Ritanoc" and "Peccarecamicke", where four of Raleigh's colonists were supposed to be held by a chieftain named "Gepanocon".

Gates arrived at Jamestown in May , several months into the Starving Time. The crisis may have deterred the colonists from attempting the proposed relocation.

An expedition was sent to the Chowan River, but there is no record of its findings. By , he had returned to England, where he wrote The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia , an overview of the Virginia territory.

However, Strachey introduced additional details about "the slaughter at Roanoak". Strachey suggested that the lost colonists had spent twenty years living peacefully with a tribe beyond Powhatan territory.

Wahunsenacawh, he claimed, carried out the unprovoked attack at the recommendation of his priests, shortly before the arrival of the Jamestown colonists.

Based on this account, seven English—four men, two boys, and one woman—survived the assault and fled up the Chowan River. They later came under the protection of a chieftain named "Eyanoco", for whom they beat copper at "Ritanoe".

The Historie of Travaile never directly identifies the tribe that supposedly hosted the Roanoke colonists. However, Strachey did describe an attack against the Chesepians, in which Wahunsenacawh's priests warned him that a nation would arise in Chesapeake Bay to threaten his dominion.

Strachey believed that the Powhatan religion was inherently Satanic , and that the priests might literally be in communion with Satan. He advocated for England to facilitate the Powhatans' conversion to Christianity.

To that end, he recommended a plan in which King James would show mercy to the Powhatan people for the massacre of the Roanoke colonists, but demand revenge upon the priests.

After the Powhatan attacked Jamestown in , there was a dramatic shift in English commentary on Native Americans, as writers increasingly questioned their humanity.

The London Company sponsored propaganda arguing that the massacre had justified genocidal retaliation, in order to assure potential backers that their investment in the colony would be safe.

In this context, Samuel Purchas wrote Virginia's Verger in , asserting England's right to possess and exploit its North American claim.

He argued that the natives, as a race, had forfeited their right to the land through bloodshed, citing the ambush of Grenville's garrison, an alleged attack on White's colonists, and the Jamestown massacre.

Purchas offered no evidence for his claim about the colony except to state, "Powhatan confessed to Cap.

Smith, that hee had beene at their slaughter, and had divers utensills of theirs to shew. It is possible Smith related the story of Wahunsenacawh's confession to Purchas, as they are known to have spoken together.

However, Smith's own writings never mention the confession, leaving Purchas's claim to stand alone in what historian Helen Rountree dismisses as "an anti-Indian polemic ".

Sea traffic through Roanoke Island fell into decline in the 17th century, owing to the dangerous waters of the Outer Banks.

During John Lawson 's — exploration of northern Carolina , he visited Hatteras Island and encountered the Hatteras people. They reported that several of their ancestors had been white, and some of them had gray eyes, supporting this claim.

Lawson theorized that members of the colony had assimilated into this community after they lost hope of regaining contact with England.

Research into the disappearance of the colonists largely ended with Lawson's investigation. Renewed interest in the Lost Colony during the 19th century eventually led to a wide range of scholarly analysis.

The ruins that Lawson encountered in eventually became a tourist attraction. President James Monroe visited the site on April 7, During the s, visitors described the deteriorated "fort" as little more than an earthwork in the shape of a small bastion , and reported holes dug by in search of valuable relics.

Production of the silent film The Lost Colony and road development further damaged the site. In the s, J. Harrington advocated for the restoration and preservation of the earthwork.

In , the earthwork was reconstructed in an effort to restore its original size and shape. Archaeological research on Roanoke Island only began when Talcott Williams discovered a Native American burial site in He returned in to excavate the fort, but found nothing of significance.

Phelps and his team discovered a ring in , which initially appeared to be a gold signet ring bearing the heraldry of a Kendall family in the 16th century.

X-ray analysis in proved the ring was brass, not gold, and experts could not confirm the alleged connection to Kendall heraldry.

The low value and relative anonymity of the ring make it more difficult to conclusively associate with any particular person from the Roanoke voyages, which in turn increases the likelihood that it could have been brought to the New World at a later time.

A significant challenge for archaeologists seeking information about the colonists is that many common artifacts could plausibly originate from the colony, or from Native Americans who traded with other European settlements in the same era.

Andrew Lawler suggests that an example of a conclusive find would be female remains since the colony was exclusively male buried according to Christian tradition supine, in an east—west orientation which can be dated to before by which point Europeans would have spread throughout the region.

One possible explanation for the extreme deficiency in archaeological evidence is shoreline erosion. The northern shore of Roanoke Island, where the Lane and White colonies were located, lost feet m between and Extrapolating from this trend back to the s, it is likely portions of the settlements are now underwater, along with any artifacts or signs of life.

At their request, the British Museum examined the original map with a light table. One of the patches, at the confluence of the Roanoke and Chowan rivers, was found to cover a symbol representing a fort.

As the symbol is not to scale, it covers an area on the map representing thousands of acres in Bertie County, North Carolina.

However, the location is presumed to be in or near the 16th century Weapemeoc village of Mettaquem. In , when a team prepared to excavate where the symbol indicated, archaeologist Nicholas Luccketti suggested they name the location "Site X", as in " X marks the spot.

In an October statement, the First Colony Foundation reported finding fragments of Tudor pottery and weapons at Site X, and concluded that these indicate a small group of colonists residing peacefully in the area.

In , a team led by climatologist David W. Stahle of the University of Arkansas and archaeologist Dennis B. Blanton of the College of William and Mary concluded that an extreme drought occurred in Tidewater between and Their study measured growth rings from a network of bald cypress trees, producing data over ranging from to Specifically, was measured as the worst growing season in the entire year period.

The findings were considered consistent with the concerns the Croatan expressed about their food supply. Since , computer scientist Roberta Estes has founded several organizations for DNA analysis and genealogical research.

Her interest in the disappearance of the colony motivated various projects to establish a genetic link between the colonists and potential Native American descendants.

Examining autosomal DNA for this purpose is unreliable, as so little of the colonists' genetic material would remain after five or six generations.

The main challenge of this work is to obtain a genetic point of comparison, either from the remains of a Lost Colonist or one of their descendants.

While it is conceivable to sequence DNA from year-old bones, there are as of yet no bones from the Lost Colony to work with. As of , the project has yet to identify any living descendants either.

Without evidence of the Lost Colony's relocation or destruction, speculation about their fate has endured since the s. Conjecture about the Lost Colonists typically begins with the known facts about the case.

When White returned to the colony in , there was no sign of battle or withdrawal under duress, although the site was fortified.

There were no human remains or graves reported in the area, suggesting everyone left alive. David Beers Quinn concluded that the colonists sought to relocate to their original destination—Chesapeake Bay—using the pinnace and other small boats to transport themselves and their belongings.

A small group would have been stationed at Croatoan to await White's return and direct him to the transplanted colony. Following White's failure to locate any of the colonists, the main body of the colonists would have quickly assimilated with the Chesepians , while the lookouts on Croatoan would have blended into the Croatan tribe.

Quinn suggested that Samuel Mace's voyage might have ventured into Chesepeake Bay and kidnapped Powhatans to bring back to England. From there these abductees would be able to communicate with Thomas Harriot, and might reveal that Europeans were living in the region.

Quinn evidently believed circumstances such as these were necessary to explain optimism about the colonists' survival after Although Strachey accused Wahunsenacawh of slaughtering the colonists and Chesepians in separate passages, Quinn decided that these events occurred in a single attack on an integrated community, in April He supposed that Wahunsenacawh could have been seeking revenge for the speculative kidnappings by Mace.

In Quinn's estimation, John Smith was the first to learn of the massacre, but for political considerations he quietly reported it directly to King James rather than revealing it in his published writings.

Despite Quinn's reputation on the subject, his peers had reservations about his theory, which relies heavily on the accounts of Strachey and Purchas.

People have considered the possibility that the missing colonists could have assimilated into nearby Native American tribes since at least Therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that, if the colonists were assimilated, they or their descendants would not seek reintegration with subsequent English settlers.

Most historians today believe this to be the most likely scenario for the surviving colonists' fate. It is widely accepted that the Croatan were ancestors of the 18th-century Hatteras, although evidence of this is circumstantial.

Some 17th-century maps use the word "Croatoan" to describe locations on the mainland, across Pamlico Sound from Roanoke and Hatteras. By , these areas were associated with the Machapunga.

Bullard in More famously, in the s, state legislator Hamilton McMillan proposed that the Native American community in Robeson County then considered free people of color retained surnames and linguistic characteristics from the colonists.

The tribe petitioned to be renamed in , eventually settling on the name Lumbee in Other tribes purportedly linked to the Roanoke colonists include the Catawba and the Coree.

Reports of encounters with pale-skinned, blond-haired people among various Native American tribes occur as early as Although this is frequently attributed to assimilated Lost Colonists, it may be more easily explained by dramatically higher rates of albinism in Native Americans than in people of European descent.

Dawson claims, "They were never lost. It was made up. The mystery is over. The colonists could have decided to rescue themselves by sailing for England in the pinnace left behind by the expedition.

If such an effort was made, the ship could have been lost with all hands at sea, accounting for the absence of both the ship and any trace of the colonists.

Little is known about the pinnace, but ships of its size were capable of making the trip, although they typically did so alongside other vessels.

The colonists may have feared that a standard route across the Atlantic Ocean, with a stop in the Caribbean, would risk a Spanish attack.

Nevertheless, it was feasible for the colonists to attempt a direct course to England. In , French settlers at the failed Charlesfort colony built a crude boat and successfully albeit desperately returned to Europe.

Alternatively, the Roanoke colonists could have sailed north along the coast, in the hopes of making contact with English fishing fleets in the Gulf of Maine.

The pinnace would not have been large enough to carry all of the colonists. Additionally, the provisions needed for a transatlantic voyage would further restrict the number of passengers.

The colonists may have possessed the resources to construct another seaworthy vessel, using local lumber and spare parts from the pinnace.

Considering the ships were built by survivors of the Sea Venture shipwreck, it is at least possible that the Lost Colonists could produce a second ship that, with the pinnace, could transport most of their party.

The purpose of this plot, she argued, was to undermine Walter Raleigh, whose activities supposedly interfered with Walsingham's covert machinations to make England a Protestant world power at the expense of Spain and other Catholic nations.

This conspiracy would have prevented Raleigh and White from dispatching a relief mission until Walsingham's death in Raleigh expressed sympathy for the Separatists, while Walsingham considered them a threat to be eliminated.

According to Miller, the colonists split up, with a small group relocating to Croatoan while the main body sought shelter with the Chowanoke.

However, the colonists would quickly spread European diseases among their hosts, decimating the Chowanoke and thereby destabilizing the balance of power in the region.

From there Miller reasoned that the Chowanoke were attacked, with the survivors taken captive, by the "Mandoag", a powerful nation to the west that the Jamestown colonists only knew from the vague accounts of their neighbors.

Miller's theory has been challenged based on Walsingham's considerable financial support of Raleigh's expeditions, and the willingness of Fernandes to bring John White back to England instead of abandoning him with the other colonists.

Local legends in Dare County refer to an abandoned settlement called "Beechland", located within what is now the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge.

The area has had reports of small coffins, some with Christian markings, encouraging speculation of a link to the Lost Colony. All records suggesting the colony's intended destination was Chesapeake Bay, and that England had lost contact with the colony, were supposedly falsified to conceal the operation from Spanish operatives and other potential competitors.

According to McMullan, Raleigh quietly re-established contact with the colony by , and his sassafras expeditions were simply picking up the colonists' harvests.

In this view, the colony was not truly abandoned until the secret of the colony's location died with Raleigh in After that point, McMullan argued, the colonists would have begun to assimilate with the Croatan at Beechland.

This theory largely depends upon oral traditions and unsubstantiated reports about Beechland, as well as a map that depicts a sassafras tree near the Alligator River.

A significant problem is that Raleigh supposedly planned a sassafras farm in to capitalize on a dramatic increase in crop prices, so that he could quickly compensate for the great expense of the failed colony.

While preparing to compose a drama about the Lost Colony, Paul Green noticed that Spanish records from the period contained an abundance of references to Raleigh and his settlements.

Spanish forces knew of English plans to establish a new Virginia base in , and were searching for it before White's colonists had even arrived.

The colonists likely recognized the threat this represented, given the Spanish sack of Fort Caroline in The CORA tree had already been the subject of local legends, most notably a story about a witch named "Cora" that was popularized in a book by Charles H.

A study to determine the age of the CORA tree was inconclusive. Damage to the tree, caused by lightning and decay, has made it impossible to obtain a valid core sample for tree-ring dating.

Even if the tree dates back to the 16th century, though, establishing the age of the inscription would be another matter. From to , a series of inscribed stones was discovered that were claimed to have been written by Eleanor Dare , mother of Virginia Dare.

They told of the travelings of the colonists and their ultimate deaths. Most historians believe that they are a fraud, but there are some today who still believe at least one of the stones to be genuine.

Raleigh was publicly criticized for his apparent indifference to the fate of the colony, most notably by Sir Francis Bacon. United States historians largely overlooked or minimized the importance of the Roanoke settlements until , when George Bancroft lionized the colonists in A History of the United States.

As Andrew Lawler puts it, "The country was hungry for an origin story more enchanting than the spoiled fops of Jamestown or the straitlaced Puritans of Plymouth Roanoke, with its knights and villains and its brave but outnumbered few facing an alien culture, provided all the elements for a national myth.

The popularity of the Lost Colony and Virginia Dare in the 19th and early 20th centuries coincided with American controversies about rising numbers of Catholic and non-British immigrants, as well as the treatment of African Americans and Native Americans.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt attended the play on August 18, —Virginia Dare's th birthday. The American Horror Story episode " Birth " relates a fictional legend in which the Lost Colonists mysteriously died, and their ghosts haunted the local Native Americans until a tribal elder banished them with the word "Croatoan".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with the inland modern city of Roanoke, Virginia. For other uses, see Lost Colony disambiguation.

See also: List of colonists at Roanoke. Further information: Watts' West Indies and Virginia expedition.

Main article: Dare Stones. See List of colonists at Roanoke. David Beers Quinn identified Mosquetal as Tallaboa Bay in , but he later concurred with Samuel Eliot Morison 's conclusion that the name referred to Guayanilla Bay, [7] : —, [2] : 57,— New York: Doubleday.

February The novel became a bestseller that allowed Nabokov to On August 18, , the Yangtze River in China peaks during a horrible flood that kills 3.

This was perhaps the worst natural disaster of the 20th century. The Yangtze River runs through southern China, one The Honorable Gary M.

Little shoots himself just hours before the Seattle Post-Intelligencer releases an article accusing him of abusing his power by sexually exploiting juvenile defendants who appeared before him.

The front-page article also suggested that he had exploited his This Day In History. Ancient China. World War II.

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